1. Seynt Laurence Nyght. The
Eve of 10 August, feast day of St. Laurence, deacon
and martyr, d. 258.
2. skrippe and burdon. The pilgrim's bag (scrip) and staff (burdon), representing faith and hope.
3. Ysaye. Isaiah 14 (?).
4. Sapientes sunt. Jeremiah 4.22: 'They are wise to do evil, but to do good they have no knowledge' .(KJV)
5. Maledicta creatura eorum. Wisdom of Solomon 3.13(?): ' their offspring is cursed'. (Douay-Rheims). But the quia inutilis is not to be found there.
6. St. George, martyr, d. c. 303.
7. St. Nicholas of Myra (4th ct.).
8. St. Anthony of Egypt, hermit and abbot (251-356).
9. St. Benedict of Nursia, founder of the Benedictine order, d. c. 550.
10. St. Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary.
11. St. Katherine of Alexandria, (supposedly 4th ct).
12. aliquem sanctorum. Job 5.1: Voca ergo, si est qui tibi respondeat! Ad (ali)quem sanctorum converteris?'.
'Call now, if there be any that will answer thee; and to which of the saints wilt thou turn?' (KJV).
13. Danyel. Daniel 10.13: 'But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia'; Daniel 12.1: 'And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book'.
14. placebo. Psalm 114.9: 'Placebo Domino in regione vivorum'.
'I shall be pleasing to the Lord in the land of the living'. Opening words of the office for the dead.
15. Synderesis. Synteresis, the worm of conscience. In scholastic philosophy, the inborn moral consciousness that distinguishes between good and evil.
16. Lady Penance, whose attributes are the hammer of contrition, the besom of confession, and the rods of punishment
17.Genesis 8.21'...the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth;'
18. In Lyfe of že Manhode, Gracedieu, after giving the pilgrim his scrip and burdon of faith and hope, provides him with the armour of righteousness.
19. The Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305) issued several decrees against the Christians.
20. Arius (c. 250-336). Gave his name to the heresy of Arianism, which denied the divine nature of Christ.
21. Psalm 11.9 (Vulgate): 'In circuitu impii ambulant...'. 'The wicked walk round about...' (Douay-Rheims).
22.Luke 1.28: 'And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women'. (Douay-Rheims)
23. Substantial form. The quintessential form or true nature of things. The substance of something was opposed to its accidents or 'outward appearances'. An example of the opposition between substance and accident. is the Transubstantiation. The accidents of the bread and wine remain the same - we still see bread and wine - but their substance, their essence or 'deeper meaning', has been turned into the body and blood of Christ.
24. Exodus 20 ff.
25. Isaiah 28.19 (Vulg.):quandocumque pertransierit tollet vos quoniam mane diluculo pertransibit in die et in nocte et tantummodo sola vexatio intellectum dabit auditui.
'From the time that it goeth forth it shall take you: for morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by night: and it shall be a vexation only to understand the report'(KJV)
26.potest ultimum terribilium. Egerton 615 has 'that is vltimum terribilium' , 'the most of terrible of things'
27. be executed by those. The text has execute by thought, which does not make sense. Cf. Egerton 615.
28. Caxton has receyued, which makes no sense. Cf. Egerton 615.
29. bare hir brest. in Life of že Manhode, when the pilgrim lies sick in his bed, Mercy suckles him . The milk signifies Christ's blood (the Sacraments).
30. Revelation 12.7-12 mentions a war in heaven, when Satan is cast out. But there is no mention of silence preceding it.
31. backes forrotyd. Possibly a reference to tabes dorsalis, a degeneration of the nerves and fibres in the dorsal columns of the spine. Tabes dorsalis is the result of an untreated syphilis infection.
32. Iustus ex fide viuit. Galatians 3.11: 'The just shall live by faith'.
33.1 Corinthians 13.8: Caritas numquam excidit, 'Charity never faileth'.
34. olde bokes. Penitential books or libri poenitentiales, guidelines listing sins and their appropriate penance.
35. kryket. Ame has salemandre.
36. foole maydens. Matthew 25.1-13: the parable of the foolish maidens.
37. the prophete. Ezechiel 18.20: 'The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him'.
38. In Caxton's print, the text that should be on f.43v was printed on f.46r and vice versa.
39. Seynt Iohn. John 3.3-6: 'Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born? Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit'.
40. Ezechyel. Ezekiel 37.4: 'Again he said unto me, Prophesy upon these bones, and say unto them, O ye dry bones, hear the word of the LORD'.
41. Aristotiles. Aristotle, De Generatione et Corruptione.
42. Cambyses. Cambyses II, king of Persia. Son of Cyrus the Great. According to Herodotus' Histories (book 5), he had the judge Sisamnes, who had taken bribes, flayed alive and the judgement seat covered with his skin as a warning to other judges.
43. concepit dolorem. Psalm 7.15: 'Ecce parturiit iniustitiam, concepit dolorem et peperit iniquitatem'. (Vulg.). Behold he hath been in labour with injustice: he hath conceived sorrow, and brought forth iniquity'. (Douay-Rheims).
44. parturiit iniusticiam. See note 43.
45. peperit iniquitatem. See note 43.
46. Aristotle. Aristotle's Metaphysics, in which he uses the example of the apple that cannot both be and not be to explain the law of non-contradiction.
47. Adams appel. Genesis 3.
48. Danyell the prophete. Daniel 4.
49. Ezechyel. Ezekiel 5.5: 'This is Jerusalem: I have set it in the midst of the nations and countries that are round about her'.
50. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, In Festo Pentecostes, sermo 2.4.
51.quene of Saba. 1 Kings 10.
52.Probatica Piscina. John 5.2: 'Est autem Hierosolymis, super Probatica, piscina, quae cognominatur Hebraice Bethsatha, quinque porticus habens'. (Vulg.) 'Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep market a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches'. (KJV).
53. Heyl Maria. Luke 1.28: 'And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women'. (Douay-Rheims).
54. Elysabeth. Luke 1.39-42: 'And Mary rising up in those days, went into the hill country with haste into a city of Juda. And she entered into the house of Zachary and saluted Elizabeth. And it came to pass that when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant leaped in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost. And she cried out with a loud voice and said: Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb'. (Douay-Rheims). Elizabeth was the kinswoman of Mary and the mother of John the Baptist, with whom she was pregnant at the time.
55. O woman that amonge the peple speke. Luke 11.27: 'And it came to pass, as he spoke these things, a certain woman from the crowd, lifting up her voice, said to him( Jesus): Blessed is the womb that bore thee and the paps that gave thee suck'. (Douay-Rheims).
56. Symeon. Luke 2.25, 34-35: 'And behold there was a man in Jerusalem named Simeon: and this man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel. And the Holy Ghost was in him ... And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother: Behold this child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many in Israel and for a sign which shall be contradicted. And thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that, out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed'. (Douay-Rheims).
57. Joachim. Joachim and Anna are identified as the parents of Mary in the apocryphal Gospel of James or Protovangelium, The Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew.
58. amonge theuys. Matthew 27.38: 'Then were crucified with him two thieves: one on the right hand and one on the left'. (Douay-Rheims).
59. Thy name vp in scripture. Matthew 27.37: 'And they put over his head his cause written: this is jesus the king of the jews'. (Douay-Rheims).
60. The Sun answers Mary's prayer. Luke 23.44-45: And it was almost the sixth hour: and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst'. (Douay-Rheims).
61. now quake. Matthew 27.50-52: And Jesus again crying with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.' And behold the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top even to the bottom: and the earth quaked and the rocks were rent.And the graves were opened: and many bodies of the saints that had slept arose,'. (Douay-Rheims).
62. to another thou hast yeuen me. John 19.26-27: 'When Jesus therefore had seen his mother and the disciple standing whom he loved, he saith to his mother: Woman, behold thy son. After that, he saith to the disciple: Behold thy mother. And from that hour, the disciple took her to his own.' (Douay-Rheims).
63. syth thow me but `woman' callyst. At the wedding at Cana (John 2.1-11), Mary tells Jesus that there is no wine. Jesus responds, saying: 'Woman, what is that to me and to thee? My hour is not yet come'. (Douay-Rheims).
64. Egerton 615 has marra, a pun with 'marred', which makes much more sense.
65. See note 62.
66. martred. another pun on Mary.
67. abortyue. 1 Cor. 15.8: 'novissime autem omnium, tamquam abortivo, visus est et mihi'. (Vulg.). 'And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time'. (KJV).
68. accidentale See note 23
69. he is the myrrour. Perhaps Wisdom 7.26: ' [wisdom is] the brightness of eternal light, and the unspotted mirror of God's majesty, and the image of his goodness'. (Douay-Rheims).
70. as Salamon seith. Wisdom 9.15 'For the corruptible body is a load upon the soul, and the earthly habitation presseth down the mind that museth upon many things'. (Douay-Rheims)
71. omnis caro. Isaiah 40.6: 'Omnis caro fenum, et omnis gloria eius quasi flos agri'. (Vulg.). 'All flesh is grass, and all the glory thereof as the flower of the field'. (Douay-Rheims).
72. anima quia animat. The soul that quickens the body joined to it.
73. spiritus est qui viuificat. John 6.63: 'Spiritus est, qui vivificat, caro non prodest quidquam'. (Vulg.) It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing'. (KJV).
74. caro concupiscit aduersus spiritum. Galatians 5.17:'Caro enim concupiscit adversus Spiritum, Spiritus autem adversus carnem; haec enim invicem adversantur'. (Vulg.) 'For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other'. (KJV).
75. renouamini in nouitate sensus. Thomas Aquinas, Super Epistolam B. Pauli ad Romanos lectura: 'renovamini in novitate sensus vestri'. Romans 12.2: 'nolite conformari huic saeculo sed reformamini in novitate sensus vestri'. (Vulg.) 'And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind'. (KJV)
76. Inuisibilia Dei. Romans 1.20: 'Invisibilia enim ipsius a creatura mundi per ea, quae facta sunt, intellecta conspiciuntur, sempiterna eius et virtus et divinitas, ut sint inexcusabiles'. (Vulg.) 'For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse'.(KJV).
77. Depremit terrena habitacio. Wisdom 9.15: 'corpus enim, quod corrumpitur, aggravat animam, et terrena inhabitatio deprimit sensum multa cogitantem (vulg.) 'For the corruptible body is a load upon the soul, and the earthly habitation presseth down the mind that museth upon many things'.(Douay-Reims).
78. Nabugodonosor ... Danyell. Daniel 2.31-49.
79. Ecclesiasticus. Ecclesiasticus 10.1-3: 'A wise judge shall judge his people, and the government of a prudent man shall be steady. As the judge of the people is himself, so also are his ministers: and what manner of man the ruler of a city is, such also are they that dwell therein. An unwise king shall be the ruin of his people: and cities shall be inhabited through the prudence of the rulers'. (Douay-Rheims)
80. O pastor et ydolum. Not found in Isaiah. The phrase o pastor et idolum can only be found in Zechariah 11.17: 'o pastor et idolum derelinquens gregem gladius super brachium eius et super oculum dextrum eius brachium eius ariditate siccabitur et oculus dexter eius tenebrescens obscurabitur'. (Vulg.) 'Woe to the idol shepherd that leaveth the flock! the sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened. (KJV)
81. Commodius. Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, emperor of Rome (161-192), son of Marcus Aurelius. His reign was marked by greed, suspicion, and murder.
82. cogun estable. A typical case of the folk etymology prevalent in medieval times; constable is derived from Latin: comes stabuli 'officer (lit. 'companion') of the stable'
83. Gedeon. In fact it is not Gideon, but Aod (Ehud), in Judges 3.15: And afterwards they cried to the Lord, who raised them up a saviour, called Aod, the son of Cera, the son of Jemini, who used the left hand as well as the right. (Douay-Rheims)
84. Apocalisis. Revelation 15.6: And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen, and having their breasts girded with golden girdles (KJV).
85. rote of al synne. 1 Timothy 6.10: 'radix enim omnium malorum est cupiditas'. (Vulg.). 'For the love of money is the root of all evil'. (KJV).
86. Aaron. Exodus 28.29-30: And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the rational of judgment upon his breast, when he shall enter into the sanctuary, a memorial before the Lord for ever. And thou shalt put in the rational of judgment doctrine and truth, which shall be on Aaron's breast, when he shall go in before the Lord: and he shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel on his breast, in the sight of the Lord always.(Douay-Rheims)
87. vpon his breste. Genesis 3.14: And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life (KJV).
88.Seynt Iohan. Revelation 4.6: 'and round about the throne, were four beasts full of eyes before and behind'. (KJV)
89. Danyels book. Daniel 3.51-90.
90. Sawter. Psalm 148 (Vulg.).
91. Seynt Poule. 2 Corinthians 12.2: 'I knew a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell, or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth) such an one caught up to the third heaven'.(KJV) Though the man is not Saint Paul himself, he was soon identified with Saint Paul, and the influential Visio Pauli bases itself on this verse.
92. vessel of election. Acts 9.15: 'But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way: for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel'.(KJV)
93. de virginibus. 1 Corinthians 7.25: 'De virginibus autem praeceptum Domini non habeo; consilium autem do, tamquam misericordiam consecutus a Domino, ut sim fidelis'. (Vulg.) 'Now concerning virgins I have no commandment of the Lord: yet I give my judgment, as one that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to be faithful'.(KJV
94. notum vobis facio Euangelium 1 Corinthians 15.1: Notum autem vobis facio, fratres, evangelium, quod evangelizavi vobis, quod et accepistis, in quo et statis'. (Vulg.) 'Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand'. (KJV)
95. non sunt condigne. Romans 8.18: 'Existimo enim quod non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam, quae revelanda est in nobis'.(Vulg.) 'For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. (KJV)
96. regi seculorum. 1 Timothy 1.17: 'Regi autem saeculorum, incorruptibili, invisibili, soli Deo honor et gloria in saecula saeculorum. Amen.(Vulg.) 'Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever Amen'. (KJV)
97. regnum tuum. Psalm 145(144).13: 'Regnum tuum regnum omnium saeculorum,et dominatio tua in omnem generationem et generationem'. (Vulg.) 'Thy kingdom is a kingdom of all ages: and thy dominion endureth throughout all generations.(Douay-Rheims)
98. Gloria Patri. 'Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto, sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper et in saecula saeculorum. Amen' Glory be to the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, as it was in the beginning, is now, and will be forever. Amen
99. Pawle. St Paul of Thebes, the first hermit
100. mille millia. Daniel 7.10: 'milia milium ministrabant ei,et decies milies centena milia assistebant ei: iudicium sedit, et libri aperti sunt. (Vulg.) 'thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened'.(KJV)
101. Seynt George. St. George, patron saint of knights and of England.
102. Seynt Dunstone. St. Dunstan, abbot of Glastonbury and archbishop of Canterbury, patron saint of goldsmiths.
103. Seynt Iohan. Revelation 21.2, 10: 'And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.
'And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God'. (KJV).
104. Seynt Laurence. St. Lawrence, deacon and martyr. Feast day: August 10
105. Seynt Steuen. St. Stephen, deacon and protomartyr of the Church
106. Seynt Vyncent. St. Vincent of Saragossa, deacon and protomartyr of Spain
107. ordre of dekene. It is not the feast day of Sts. Stephen (26 December) and Vincent (22 January). They come along to honour St. Lawrence, their brother deacon and martyr.
108. Mychael the Prouost. Michaelmas, 29 September
109. Al Halowen. All Saints'Day, 1 November
110. Concepcion. Immaculate Conception: 8 December
111. Tubal. No doubt a confusion of Jubal in Genesis 4.21 and Tubal-Cain in Genesis 4.22: 'And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ'.
'And Zillah, she also bare Tubal-cain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron'. (KJV).
112. Natyuyte. The Nativity of Our Lady, 8 September.
113. Annunciacion. The Annunciation to Our Lady, 25 March.
114. gemine gigas substancie. geminae gigas substantiae, from Veni Redemptor Gentium, a hymn by St. Ambrose.
115. ioustes. The battle between the virtues and the vices, or 'psychomchia' (cf. Prudentius.) Usually the virtues and vices are represented as female characters.
116. Purificacion. Feast of the purification, or Candlemas, 2 February.
117. Symeon. Simeon and Anna: Luke 2.21-38.
118. Assumpcion. Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 15 August
119. Ascencion. Feast of the Ascension of Christ into Heaven, the fortieth day after the Resurrection (Easter).
120. Reference to the slaying of the Innocent Children, Matthew 2.16.
121. sathanas. The devil tempted Christ during his forty-day fast in the desert.
Matthew 4.1-11; Luke 4.1-13.
122. as Dauid telleth. Psalm 21.18: They have numbered all my bones. And they have looked and stared upon me.(Douay-Rheims)
123. bytter scorges. John 19.1: 'Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him'. (KJV).
124. Seynt Denys. Acts 17.34: 'Howbeit certain men clave unto him, and believed: among the which was Dionysius the Areopagite'. (KJV).
125.Seynt Paul. In fact, St. Peter, in 1 Peter 5.8: 'Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour'. (KJV).
126. Sampson. Judges 14.
127. delyuer me. Psalm 22.21 'Save me from the lion's mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns'. (KJV).
128. vois in Rama. Matthew 2.18: 'In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not'. (KJV)
129.te Deum laudamus. O God, we praise thee', a 4th century hymn attributed to Nicetas of Remesiana (formerly attributed to St. Ambrose).
130. The Faders vois. Matthew 3.17: 'And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.' (KJV).
131. This is my fleshe. Matthew 26.26-29: 'And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom'. (KJV).
132. feste of these fisshers. Pentecost, Acts 2.1-4
133. Seynt Powle. Romans 12.3: 'For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith'. (KJV).
134. Genesis. Genesis 1.31: 'And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. (KJV)
135.Romayns. Romans 11.36: 'For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever'. (KJV)
136. See note 133.
137. And the last year. By July, Richard III had usurped the throne.